General Chemistry I
3 Credit Hours
Dr. Gary D. Anderson
Department of Chemistry
Huntington, WV 25755
Prerequisites: There are no formal prerequisites for this course but if your math ACT score was below 17, I would strongly advise you to complete MTH 098 before attempting this course. If your math ACT score was 17 or 18, I would suggest that you take MTH 099 along with this course.
Course Description: An introduction to chemical science, its development, basic concepts and interrelationships with other sciences. Intended primarily for non-science majors and B.A. degree candidates.
Note for students with visual impairments: This course contains a substantial number of graphics files that cannot be adequately described as text equivalents. If you contact the instructor arrangements can be made to provide the source files for the graphics and/or Braille embossed high resolution graphics.
Since this syllabus is rather long, I have included some hyperlinks to help you find specific information.
Computer and Software Requirements
Contacting the Instructor
How This Course Is Organized
List of Topics to Be Covered
Target Dates and Deadlines
Instructor Biographical Information
Text: The text for this course is Hein, Pattison, Arena, Best: Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 11th Edition. Wiley and Sons has made a special, low price version available to Marshall students. This version contains only the chapters for the first semester course and is printed in black and white. The price for this version is about $65. All the color photes and such are in grey tones but this shouldn't make any difference in your ability to understand the text because most of things in color are just supplemental material. This version is bound as a paperback. The ISBN number is 9781118940808. This version is available at the Marshall Bookstore. If it is inconvenient for you to get to Huntington you can order the book online from the MU Bookstore (see link at bottom of main page of the course). You will not find this version at Amazon or any of the other online dealers.
If you have a copy of the 9th edition or the 10t edition of the book you can use that. There is no signifcant difference in the content between the 9th edition, the 10th edition,and the 11th edition. Page numbers are slightly different but the is a file posted on the main course page that will give corresponding page numbers for the three editions.
You will need a basic scientific calculator. The logarithm function is the only thing that you will need beyond addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. You should be able to find a suitable calculator for around $15 or less. I do not recommend that you buy an expensive calculator. You will be better off with an inexpensive calculator that you can learn to use easily instead of with an expensive calculator with so many capabilities that you have a hard time learning how to use it. The calculator that is installed as a part of Windows is a good example of what you need and, in fact, you may want to use it for the quizzes.
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Computer and Software Requirements:
- You will need ready access to the internet. Home access is highly recommmended. Your computer should meet the minimum requirements listed in the link to Computer Hardware / Software Check and Minimum Requirements in the Student Support and Resources box in the opening page for the course in Blackboard. Broadband access such as DSL or cable modem is desirable but modem dialup access at 56K will work. There are very few files that will take more than a minute to download even at 56K.
- You will need a web browser. Internet Explorer is the browser of choice. I have also tested the course with the Safari browser for Macintosh OS/X. All portions of the course that I have tested work with Safari. Mozilla and Firefox browsers will work for most parts of the course.
- You will also need the Sun Virtual Java Machine and you can download that from the link to Computer Requirements and Software Download Center in the Student Support and Resources box on the opening page for the course.
- Be sure to run the browser tuneup to make sure that you have all the correct browser settings. Note well that it is very important to have the correct cache settings for your browser. If the cache is not set properly you may have problems accessing portions of the course.
- There are some animations that are provided in several different formats. All formats show exactly the same information. One of these formats (animated gif) should work on most browsers without any additional plug-ins but some of the others may have shorter file sizes. Another (AVI) will play through the Media Player included in Windows. If you have a slow modem connection it may be worth your while to install either the Shockwave or Quicktime plug-ins since these files may be smaller in some cases.
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Contacting the Instructor:
Whenever you need help with the course or just want to ask a question about anything, you should feel free to contact me. I am semiretired and do not teach any classes other than online courses. I do not have an office on campus and I do not have a campus phone. The only reliable method for contacting me is by e-mail. I tend to check my e-mail about twice a day (even on weekends) and I tend to reply to e-mail as I receive it. I am sometimes out of town for a long weekend from time to time but will normally have access to e-mail. If I am going to be out of town and out of e-mail contact for more than a couple of days at a time I will warn you ahead of time.
You may use the e-mail that is internal to the course by clicking on the Messages button in the menu on the left side of the page. If you select Create Message, then click on the "TO" button, the instructor will listed as Gary Anderson (Instructor) and will normally be on the first page of the list.
Alternately, you may send e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org by any of the standard internet mail protocols. I will normally respond by whichever method you used to send your message. If you do not receive a response to an e-mail message within 48 hours you should assume that either your original message or my reply has gone astray in the e-mail system and you should resend the message. If you have reason to believe that the Marshall email server is not working properly you may want to try sending the message to me at email@example.com but I only check mail at that address about once a week unless the MU server is down.
Please note that while we tend to think of e-mail as being a nearly instantaneous means of communication there are times that there are significant delays in e-mail transmissions. Under certain circumstances it has been known to take as much as 48 hours for an e-mail message to get between a Marshall University account and an account at a local internet service provider. In fact, I had one case where a student sent me an e-mail message from a Marshall address and it did not arrive until 33 days later. If either server is especially busy or if the network is particularly busy you will see these delays. So, be sure to plan ahead and send e-mail messages as early as possible to avoid problems from unpredicted delays.
General announcements are posted on the course bulletin board and a copy of them is emailed to every student in the course at the time they are posted.
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This course is an introductory course in chemistry and is aimed specifically at the needs of those in the health related professions. At the end of this course, it is expected that the student will have
- achieved an understanding of the basic structure of the atom and how that structure relates to the chemical and physical properties of the elements and their compounds
- attained an understanding of the major types of chemical bonding and how that relates to the structure of compounds
- an understanding of how the structure of a compound relates to its chemical and physical properties
- become familiar with the properties common to all gases
- learned the basic calculations involved in predicting the amount of reagent needed for a reaction and the amount of product that can be obtained from a reaction
- obtained a knowledge of the commonly encountered units for describing solutions and know the basics of how to prepare and work with such solutions
- become familiar with how the concentration of a solution relates to physical properties such as osmotic pressure
- been introduced to nuclear reactions and the uses of radionuclides in both treatment and diagnosis of disease
- achieved an understanding of the basics of acid-base chemistry including the ability to predict the relative strengths of acids and bases and to predict their chemical reactions.
- become familiar with the concepts of equilibrium and how that responds to a stress in the system
- attained an understanding of how the pH of the blood is maintained by a complex system of buffers
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Organization of the Course:
Chemistry is a subject that builds on a foundation. You cannot understand the later topics unless you understand the earlier topics. For this reason, I have used the “topic mastery”¯ model for this course. You cannot go on to a new topic until you have mastered the current one. Each topic has a quiz associated with it and you must make a score of 80% (or higher) on the quiz before you can proceed. You may take the quiz as many times as necessary but only the highest score will count.
When you first start the course, only one topic will be available to you. Whenever you complete a topic, a new one will become available. All of the older ones will stay available so that you can review them as needed.
I divided the course into 71 topics -- essentially starting a new topic at the point where I would normally end a lecture session in a regular course. A normal one hour lecture would cover two or more of these topics so each topic would represent somewhere between 10 minutes and an hour of lecture time in a regular course. You should be able to complete some topics in a few minutes but some will take an hour or more.
The course is divided into four roughly equal sized parts. There is an hour exam after you complete each of these parts. These parts cover roughly 2 to 3 chapters of text material just as they would in a regular course. Click here for a detailed list of the topics.
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NOTE WELL: In a normal classroom setting for this course you would be expected to attend approximately 45 hours of lectures. You would also be expected to spend roughly double that amount of time studying for the course outside of class. The e-course format does not work magic -- you should expect to spend at least the same number of hours completing this course. Do not put off working on the course and then expect to be able to complete it in a couple of days. Be sure to try to meet the target dates so that you can successfully complete the course.
Return to Top of Page Students in this course have a maximum of one semester to complete the course. As is mentioned in the grading section of this syllabus, there is a target date for each of the hour examinations. You should try very hard to meet these targets. Otherwise, you will probably have trouble completing the course. Important dates for the Fall of 2014 are:
- August 25, 2014 First day of classes. Students should start on the topics at this time.
- August 29, 2014 Last day of schedule adjustment. Any student wishing to register for the course after this date will need specific, written permission from the instructor.
- September 19, 2014 Target date for completing Part I and taking Exam I. If you take this exam on or before September 19, 2014 I will add 1% to your final average. If you take this exam after September 26, 2014 I will deduct 1% from your final average.
- October 16, 2014 Target date for completing Part II and taking Exam II. If you take this exam on or before October 16, 2014 I will add 1% to your final average. If you take this exam after October 23, 2014 I will deduct 1% from your final average.
- October 31, 2014 This is the last day to withdraw from an individual course.
- November 11, 2014 Target date for completing Part III and taking Exam III. If you take this exam on or before November 11, 2014 I will add 1% to your final average. If you take this exam after November 18, 2014 I will deduct 1% from your final average.
- December 5, 2014 Target date for completing Part IV and taking Exam IV. If you take this exam on or before December 5, 2014 I will add 1% to your final average. The absolute deadline for taking this exam is December 11, 2014. Failure to complete this exam by that date will result in a grade of zero.
- December 11, 2014 Deadline for completion of the course. You must take the final exam on or before this date or receive a score of zero. If you take the final exam on or before December 5, 2014 I will add 1% to your final average.
Return to Top of Page There will be four hour exams and a final exam in addition to the quizzes. The quizzes will count for one third of the final average. The four hour exams will all have the same weight and will account for one half of the final average. The final exam will account for the remaining one sixth of the final average.
Letter grades will be then be assigned based on the following scale for the final average.
- Greater than 90% = A
- 80-89% = B
- 70-79% = C
- 60-69% = D
- Less than 60% = F
Since I want to encourage students to complete this course in a timely manner, I will add 1% to your final average if you take an hour exam on or before the target date for that exam. On the other side of the coin, I will deduct 1% from your final average if you take an hour exam more than one week after the target date for that exam. I will also add 1% to your final average if you complete the final exam more than one week before the deadline. If you take full advantage of this incentive you can raise your grade by a half a letter grade. On the other hand, failure to complete the coursework on schedule can cost you severely. I will post reminders of the target dates on the bulletin board from time to time so be sure to check the bulletin board for this.
The hour exams will be given on-line. There is a time limit on the exams and it will be enforced by the computer -- no answers will be accepted after the time limit on an exam. You will get the graded exam back with your score and feedback on your errors. Exams are closed book, closed note. You are on your honor to take the exams without any assistance and without referring to any materials other than a basic periodic table.
The final exam will be handled the same way as the hour exams. You only get one attempt on each exam.
The quizzes are all taken on-line and the scores and the correct answers are available to you as soon as you complete the quiz. While I have set the course up so that a “time limit” is shown for each quiz, there is no penalty for taking as much time as you like. The “time limit”¯ is just to give you an estimate of the amount of time you should make sure you have available before starting the quiz. All “time limits ”¯ were set at 10 minutes initially and then were adjusted based on statistics on how long it actually took students to complete these quizzes. In most cases at least 90% of the students completed the quiz within the "time limit" and the average is typically about 2/3 of the "time limit"
Return to Top of Page I received my B.S. in Chemistry and my M.S. from the University of Oklahoma. I completed my Ph.D. at Florida State University in 1972. My dissertation research was in the area of isolation of naturally occurring lactones from ragweeds (It's a good thing I am not allergic to pollen!). I spent two years as a Post Doctoral Research Fellow at Stanford University working on synthesis of marine steroids. While at Stanford, I worked with Professor Carl Djerassi (inventor of the birth control pill).
I spent six years on the faculty at the University of Missouri-Kansas City (home of the Fighting Kangaroos) before joining the Marshall University faculty in 1981. I have taught a wide variety of courses at Marshall including general chemistry, organic chemistry, biochemistry, various advanced courses in organic chemistry, honors seminars, and even Visual Basic programming. I was Chair of the department from 1982-1986. One of my educational activities is to perform “Chemical Magic”¯ shows in elementary, middle, and high schools.
My research interests were originally in synthetic organic chemistry but they have gradually shifted to use of computers in organic chemistry and in chemical education. I spent a sabbatical year at the University of California, Santa Cruz (home of the Banana Slugs) working on computational chemistry projects.
My primary hobby is reading (especially science fiction and mysteries) but I do consider some of the things I do with computers to be hobby rather than work and I have been known to play the occasional computer game.
I am very active in the American Chemical Society, serving as Councilor for the Central Ohio Valley Section and I am a member of the Divisional Activities Committee and the Leadership Advisory Board. I am also very active in Alpha Chi Sigma, the Chemistry Professional Fraternity. I was advisor for the Marshall University chapter for many years and served as Grand Master Alchemist (National President) for this organization that has collegiate chapters on 50 campuses and professional chapters in several large cities. I was a Trustee of the Alpha Chi Sigma Educational Foundatino for several years. I participate in a number of activites at the Chemical Heritage Foundation in Philadelphia.
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Topics to Be Covered in This Course
- 02-Scientific Notation
- 03-Significant Figures
- 04-Units of Measurement
- 05-Unit Conversions
- 06-Density and Specific Gravity
- 07-The Elements
- 08-Names and Symbols for Elements
- 09-Compounds and Chemical Formulas
- 10-Properties of Matter
- 11-Heat and Energy
- 12-DaltonĆ¢ā‚¬ā„¢s Atomic Theory
- 13- Modern Concept of Atomic Structure
- 14-Elements and Ions
- 15-Binary Compounds
- 16-Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
- 17-Molar Mass
- 18-The Mole
- 19-Percent Composition
- 20-Empircal Formula
- 21-Chemical Equations
- 22-Types of Chemical Reactions
- 23-Heat in Chemical Reactions
- 24-Stoichiometry - Mole-Mole Calculations"
- 25-Stoichiometry -Mole-Mass and Mass-Mass Calculations
- 26-Theoretical Yield
- 27-The Bohr Atom
- 28-The Aufbau Principle
- 29-The Periodic Table and Electronic Structure
- 30-Periodic Trends
- 31-Lewis Structures of Atoms and Ionic Bonding
- 32-Covalent Bonding
- 33-Lewis Structures of Covalent Compounds
- 34-Shapes of Molecules
- 35-Gases and Pressure Units
- 36-Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases
- 37-Boyle's Law
- 38-Charles' Law
- 39-Avogadro's Law
- 40-Combined Gas Laws
- 41-Mole-Mass-Volume Relationships
- 42-Ideal Gas Law
- 43-Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
- 44-Gas Stoichiometry
- 45-Properties of Liquids
- 46-Phase Changes4
- 47-Liquids and Intermolecular Forces
- 48-Water and Hydrates
- 49-Solutions and Solubility
- 52-Colligative Properties
- 53-Acids and Bases
- 54-Salts and Electrolytes
- 56-Net Ionic Equations
- 57- Equilibrium
- 58-LeChâtelier's Principle
- 59- Equilibrium Constants
- 60-Ion Product Constant for Water
- 61-Ionization Constants
- 62-Solubility Product Constant
- 63-Buffers and Hydrolysis of Salts
- 64-Redox Reactions
- 65-Balancing Redox Reactions
- 66-The Activity Series
- 67-Voltaic and Electrolytic Cells
- 68- Radioactivity
- 69-Nuclear Reactions
- 70-Radiation Units
- 71-Uses of Radiation and Nuclear Chemistry
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